USAGE, CUSTOM, TRADITION, CONVENTION
Common usages are
generally a number of exemplary attitude and behaviours qualified as concrete
expectations of the society. Common usages, at the same time, represent foundation
stones creating structure of any one of merit system. These System of merits
constitute a justification gradually to a special law system or a clause of
Law in that system according to situation of the social structure.
Common usages incorporate
functions arranging and designating relationships, behaviours, attitudes and
manners between individual and individual, individual and family, individual
and neighbours and relatives, individual and people and nation. Common usages
which keep every member of the society continuously under pressure ensure an
individual to be in unison with any group, community or society by means of
their obligatory enforcing or prohibitive sanctions. On the other hand various
common usages that have been defined according to sex, age, class and occupations
are vested with also the power to preserve , supervise, reinforce and control
connections between them.
To act against
common usages is similar in some communities to act against a law; even, time
to time they are kept over the laws and therefore individual is punished through
hard and unforgivable attitude.
Customs, like common
usages, have been arranging, managing and controlling a lot of social relationships.
Customs are effective in orderly way of social life, in execution of rules.
For example, meetings and farewells; meal and table arrangements; celebration
and sanctification related with transition periods; procedures regarding to
ask a girl’s hand in marriage, engagement and marriage; types of relationships
among sexes, age groups, members of occupation; rules required to be observed
at the time of salutation, asking for health; types of behaviours in relation
with religious Bairams, seasons and important days; words to be uttered, attitude
and behaviour to be exercised in such cases as “in mourning”, “in offering condolences”
are included in the scope of customs.
Customs have been
sourced and formed from various origins; among them type of living in the past,
viewpoints for the World, interesting coincidences and events are significant.
In a society in addition to customs covering all of society, there are also
specific customs concerning various professions, denominations, ethnic group,
etc. There are groups of age and sex, religious leaders, managers of associations,
heads of play group who ensure gradually that practical application of customs
become traditional, assume task knowingly or unknowingly. While some customs
are rather stationary and continuous, some of them are of a nature to change
in time. One part of customs, keeping pace with the great changing waves of
society, preserve their specifications to one extent, by complying with limited
changes in their specialty and structures, the other part of them, just like
live organisms, lose their effectiveness and liveliness in time and then they
cease to exist.
in general meaning, information, design, fruitless beliefs, type of life handing
down from generation to generation; in broader meaning are intangible culture.
In narrower meaning however they are viewpoints of a society on significant
matters such as sacred and political affairs throughout generations. Traditions
are divided into two, verbal and written. Just like customs, but much powerful
than them, they play important role in arranging and controlling social life.
Traditions which are generally conservative in terms of their qualifications
are effective on such social institutions as family, law, religion and policy;
science and art are rather less affected by traditions. Action by an individual
in contrary to traditions of his/her group or community, in proportion to the
degree of such opposition, is resulted in types of reaction varying from individual’s
to be excommunication to assault by the community, from despise to mockery.
There are variety of traditions that have been specified by law, just like customs.
Law tries to designate traditions and sanctions to be given for actions made
against them. Traditions generally administer much wider field than the laws.Tradition Of Military Service
Tradition On Ritual Circumcision
Traditions In Bairam
Tradition In Giving A Name To A Baby
Tradition On Woman After Childbird
of convention (görenek) is rather weak when compared to common usage, custom,
tradition. Obligation to obey under the requirement of common usage takes enforcement
feature in custom and tradition, ability to be enforced in convention. In the
most clear definition convention being the habit to perform something as it
has been experienced covers those which are found necessary and proper as are
the case in the other social habits. However, convention does not require them
to be performed absolutely. Novelties and improvements in conformity with the
group, society are added to such kinds of behaviour which have been practised
for many years but not yet taken the form of custom. They may be either continuous
or may be ceased to exist some time later.
arranging relationships necessitated by our daily life, have been lessening
disagreements among individuals, and playing a defining role in facilitating
social relations. They help relationships to go and proceed well and orderly
by defining how one should behave in visits to neighbours, patients, shopping,
in getting in and out public transportation vehicles, in introductions and being
introduced to somebody.