We may define
Local Calendar as a systematic arrangement of the couple of time-life assumed
the task of remembering and being remembered religious, historical, traditional,
educational, faithful, lawful, agricultural, political, economic ties established
by relationship based on long term experiences between natural events, social
institutions and events inherited by people of any region in essence as a cultural
as known “Local Calendar” designates a year and days in the form of sections
different from generally accepted calendars; sometimes it burdens good or bad
features its units. According to generally accepted beliefs in local calendars
are included such powers entailing to avoid to do something or to act this or
that way in seasons, months, weeks, nights, days, even hours forming the year.
While some times in Local Calendars ending a time or divisions have been explained
through natural phenomena renewed regularly, some times religious ceremonies,
relationships with other communities affecting society, a novelty introduced
to the society, a change in the type of production, death of an esteemed person,
etc. have shown themselves through an effective event.
In creation of
Local Calendars numerous factors have been taken into account.
Mountains, rivers, valleys, vegetation and its domestic and immigrating animals
available in the environment where people live have been effective in creation
of local calendar.
There are numerous examples in relation with reflecting climatic conditions
and seasons in calendar in local calendars used by people in our Country. They
are “Zemheri” (intense cold), “Hamsin” ( the period of fifty days following
the forty days of most severe winter), “Erbain” (forty days of winter), “Eyyam-ı
Bahur” (dog days), “Cemreler” (increase of warmth supposed to fall from the
sun, successively, into air, water, and earth in February), “Mart Dokuzu” (the
9th of March), “Leylek Kışı” (winter of stock), “Oğlak Kışı” (Winter
of Kid), “Kocakarı soğukları” (Cold spell about the middle of March), “Hıdırellez”
( May 6th,popularly considered as the beginning of summer), “Ekim
Zamanı” (Time of Sowing), “Hasat Zamanı” ( Time of Harvest), “Bağbozumu” (vintage),
Communicable diseases, flood, drought, earthquakes of Erzincan and Gediz causing
death of a lot of people and animals are events that are found In local calendars.
Visual shapes of the Moon, some stars, star clusters, flight of a shooting star
have been effective in creation of some local calendars. Some beliefs and practices
in our country in relation with the North Star, “ülker” star, moon and sun eclipse
have been constituting example on this matter.
Religious Factors: Various
sacred nights (Kandiller), sacred months, particulars related with pilgrimage
and benevolence, religious bairams (festivals) celebrated in our Country on
basis of Islam principles have constituted as an example for religious events
in creation of our Local Calendar.
Economic Factors: Economic
occupation which defines social structure, implementations accumulated around
weighted production in the society, events and beliefs system related therewith
are set up framework of Local Calendar. The best example of this is that in
some places months are named differently, e.g. “Döl tökümü” - March, “Çift ayı”
- April, “Göç ayı-May, Kiraz ayı-June.
Social events such as revolutions, periods ruled by some political parties,
victories and defeats, immigrations, etc. have been reflected to Local Calendar.